Archeology is the new secondary profession that can be learned at level 20 or above. Some trainers include Harrison Jones in Stormwind and Belloc Brightblade in Orgrimmar. The main ability of use is Survey, which will deploy a device that will measure the distance to an Archaeology Fragment. When the Survey flashes green, it means a Fragment is in 50 yards. If you Survey within 5 yards of a digsite, you will automatically receive the hidden Fragment. If you fail at finding a Fragment three times in a row, the digsite will despwn.
There are several types of Fragments hidden around the different continents. Dwarf and Fossil Archeology can only be found on Kalimodr and the Eastern Kingdoms. Draenei and Orc fragments are exclusive to Ountlands. The Vrykul and Nerubian Fragments are only in Northrend. Troll and Night Elf Archeology are the most common and can be found in all four of the previous locations. Finally, Tol'vir Fragments are only in Uldum. After gaining enough Fragments you may choose to Solve and turn all of the gained Archeology Fragments into an Artifact. These Artifacts tend to be rather good or otherwise rare gear that can be used in your favor.